Overview of how audit and provenance data transported over GP Connect FHIR interfaces

Governance

Provider systems SHALL ensure that access to confidential data, including patient or clinical data, through the API must meet, as a minimum, the same requirements for information governance (IG), authentication and authorisation, and auditing as that of the host system the API exposes.

Audit trail

For implementers that don’t have access to the GPSoC Framework / ‘IG Requirements for GP Systems V4’ requirements then the following extract of requirements covers the main audit trail requirements:

  • provider systems SHALL record in an audit trail all access and data changes within the system as a result of API activity in the same way that internal access and changes are required to be recorded

  • provider systems SHALL ensure that all API transactions are recorded in an audit trail and that audit trails must be subject to the standard IG audit requirements as defined in ‘IG Requirements for GP Systems V4’ or as subsequently amended

  • provider systems SHALL ensure failed or rejected API transactions are recorded with the same detail as for successful API requests, with error codes as per the error handling guidance

Audit trail records SHALL include the following minimum information:

  • a record of the user identity - this is the User ID, Name, Role profile (including Role and Organisation, URP id when Smartcard authenticated) attribute values, obtained from the user’s session structure
  • a record of the identity of the authority – the person authorising the entry of or access to data (if different from the user)
  • the date and time on which the event occurred
  • details of the nature of the audited event and the identity of the associated data (for example, patient ID, message ID) of the audited event
  • a sequence number to protect against malicious attempts to subvert the audit trail by, for example, altering the system date
  • audit trail records SHOULD include details of the end-user device (or system) involved in the recorded activity

Audit trails SHALL be enabled at all times and there shall be no means for users, or any other individuals, to disable any audit trail.

Provenance

Provider systems SHALL ensure that all additions, amendments or logical deletions to administrative and clinical data made via an API is clearly identified with information regarding the provenance of the data (such as timestamp, details of consumer system, details of user (including role)), so it is clear which information has been generated through an API rather than through the provider system itself.

Provider systems SHALL record the following provenance details of all API personal and sensitive personal data recorded within the system:

  • author details (identified through unique ID), including name and role
  • data entered by (if different from author)
  • date and time (to the second) entered
  • originating organisation
  • API interaction

Provider systems SHALL ensure that data provided to consumer systems only includes data for which the GP practice acts as data controller.

Patient demographic cross-checking

Consumer systems SHALL always perform a patient demographic check as part of the use of a GP Connect capability to ensure that the patient for whom the information has been provided is the same patient for whom the request was made, and make clear to the end user any discrepancies.

Cross-organisation audit and provenance transport

Bearer token

Consumer systems SHALL provide audit and provenance details in the HTTP Authorization header as an OAuth Bearer Token (as outlined in RFC 6749 in the form of a JSON Web Token (JWT) as defined in RFC 7519.

An example such an HTTP header is given below:

     Authorization: Bearer jwt_token_string

Provider systems SHALL respond to OAuth Bearer Token errors in line with RFC 6750 - section 3.1.

It is highly recommended that standard libraries are used for creating the JWT as constructing and encoding the token manually may lead to issues with parsing the token. A good source of information about JWT and libraries to use can be found on the JWT.io site.

JWT generation

Consumer system SHALL generate a new JWT for each API request. The consumer generated JWT SHALL consist of three base64url encoded parts separated by dots ., which are:

  • header
  • payload
  • signature

Consumer systems SHALL generate an unsecured JWT using the ‘none’ algorithm parameter in the header to indicate that no digital signature or MAC has been performed (please refer to section 6 of RFC 7519_ for details).

{
  "alg": "none",
  "typ": "JWT"
}

Payload

Consumers systems SHALL generate a JWT payload conforming to the requirements set out in the JWT Payload section of this page.

Signature

Consumer systems SHALL generate an empty signature.

Complete JWT

The final output is three base64url encoded strings separated by dots (note: there is some canonicalisation done to the JSON before it is base64url encoded, which the JWT code libraries will do for you).

eyJhbGciOiJub25lIiwidHlwIjoiSldUIn0.eyJpc3MiOiJodHRwOi8vZWMyLTU0LTE5NC0xMDktMTg0LmV1LXdlc3QtMS5jb21wdXRlLmFtYXpvbmF3cy5jb20vIy9zZWFyY2giLCJzdWIiOiIxIiwiYXVkIjoiaHR0cHM6Ly9hdXRob3JpemUuZmhpci5uaHMubmV0L3Rva2VuIiwiZXhwIjoxNDgxMjUyMjc1LCJpYXQiOjE0ODA5NTIyNzUsInJlYXNvbl9mb3JfcmVxdWVzdCI6ImRpcmVjdGNhcmUiLCJyZXF1ZXN0ZWRfcmVjb3JkIjp7InJlc291cmNlVHlwZSI6IlBhdGllbnQiLCJpZGVudGlmaWVyIjpbeyJzeXN0ZW0iOiJodHRwOi8vZmhpci5uaHMubmV0L0lkL25ocy1udW1iZXIiLCJ2YWx1ZSI6IjkwMDAwMDAwMzMifV19LCJyZXF1ZXN0ZWRfc2NvcGUiOiJwYXRpZW50LyoucmVhZCIsInJlcXVlc3RpbmdfZGV2aWNlIjp7InJlc291cmNlVHlwZSI6IkRldmljZSIsImlkIjoiMSIsImlkZW50aWZpZXIiOlt7InN5c3RlbSI6IldlYiBJbnRlcmZhY2UiLCJ2YWx1ZSI6IkdQIENvbm5lY3QgRGVtb25zdHJhdG9yIn1dLCJtb2RlbCI6IkRlbW9uc3RyYXRvciIsInZlcnNpb24iOiIxLjAifSwicmVxdWVzdGluZ19vcmdhbml6YXRpb24iOnsicmVzb3VyY2VUeXBlIjoiT3JnYW5pemF0aW9uIiwiaWQiOiIxIiwiaWRlbnRpZmllciI6W3sic3lzdGVtIjoiaHR0cDovL2ZoaXIubmhzLm5ldC9JZC9vZHMtb3JnYW5pemF0aW9uLWNvZGUiLCJ2YWx1ZSI6IltPRFNDb2RlXSJ9XSwibmFtZSI6IkdQIENvbm5lY3QgRGVtb25zdHJhdG9yIn0sInJlcXVlc3RpbmdfcHJhY3RpdGlvbmVyIjp7InJlc291cmNlVHlwZSI6IlByYWN0aXRpb25lciIsImlkIjoiMSIsImlkZW50aWZpZXIiOlt7InN5c3RlbSI6Imh0dHA6Ly9maGlyLm5ocy5uZXQvc2RzLXVzZXItaWQiLCJ2YWx1ZSI6IkcxMzU3OTEzNSJ9LHsic3lzdGVtIjoibG9jYWxTeXN0ZW0iLCJ2YWx1ZSI6IjEifV0sIm5hbWUiOnsiZmFtaWx5IjpbIkRlbW9uc3RyYXRvciJdLCJnaXZlbiI6WyJHUENvbm5lY3QiXSwicHJlZml4IjpbIk1yIl19fX0.

Note: the final section (the signature) is empty, so the JWT will end with a trailing . (this must not be omitted, otherwise it would be an invalid token)

JWT payload

Consumers SHALL populate the payload section of the JWT with the following claims:

Please see details below on how to populate each claim.


iss (issuer) claim

Consumer systems token issuer URI.

As the consuming system is presently responsible for generating the access token, this SHALL contain the URL of the Spine endpoint of the consumer system.

In future OAuth2 implementation, the iss claim will contain the URL of the OAuth2 authorisation server token endpoint.

Example: "iss": "https://consumersupplier.thirdparty.nhs.uk/"


sub (subject) claim

ID for the user on whose behalf this request is being made. Matches requesting_practitioner.id.

Example: "sub": "10019"


aud (audience) claim

The service root URL of the provider system.

This is the value returned from the SDS endpoint lookup service in the nhsMhsEndPoint field.

Example: "aud": "https://providersupplier.thirdparty.nhs.uk/GP0001/STU3/1"


exp (expiry) claim

Identifies the expiration time in UTC on and after which the JWT SHALL NOT be accepted for processing.

The expiration time SHALL be set to 5 minutes after the token creation time (populated in the iat claim).

The value must be an integer representing seconds past 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 UTC, i.e. UNIX time.

Providers SHALL reject requests with expired tokens.

Example: "exp": 1469436987


iat (issued at) claim

The time the request and token were generated in UTC.

The value SHALL be an integer representing seconds past 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 UTC, i.e. UNIX time.

Example: "iat": 1469436687


reason_for_request claim

The purpose for which access is being requested.

As GP Connect only supports usage for direct care, this value SHALL be set to directcare.

Example: "reason_for_request": "directcare"


requested_scope claim

The scope of the request.

Please the table below for which values to populate.

Claim value Description When to use
patient/*.read Patient record read request - Find a patient
- Read a patient
- Retrieve a patient’s appointments
- Read an appointment
- Get patient’s structured record
patient/*.write Patient record write request - Register a patient
- Book an appointment
- Amend an appointment
- Cancel an appointment
organization/*.read Other read request - Get the capability statement
- Find a practitioner
- Read practitioner
- Find an organisation
- Read organisation
- Read location
- Search for free slots
organization/*.write Other write request (none currently)

Providers should also read the associated Security guidance in relation to this claim.

Example: "requested_scope": "patient/*.read"


requesting_device claim

The system or device making the request, populated as a minimal Device resource.

The consumer SHALL populate the following Device fields:

  • an identifier element, with:
    • system containing a consumer-defined system URL representing the type of identifier in the value field, e.g. https://consumersupplier.com/Id/device-identifier
    • value containing the device or system identifier
  • model with the consumer product or system name
  • version with the version number of the consumer product or system

The Device resource populated in this claim is a minimally populated resource to convey key details for audit, conforming to the base STU3 FHIR resources definition, and is not required to conform to a GP Connect FHIR resource profile.

Example:

"requesting_device": {
  "resourceType": "Device",
  "identifier": [
    {
      "system": "https://consumersupplier.com/Id/device-identifier",
      "value": "CONS-APP-4"
    }
  ],
  "model": "Consumer product name",
  "version": "5.3.0"
}

requesting_organization claim

The consumer organisation making the request, populated as a minimal Organization resource.

The consumer SHALL populate the following Organization fields:

  • name with the name of the organisation
  • an identifier element, with:
    • system containing https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/ods-organization-code, and
    • value containing the ODS code of the organisation

The Organization resource populated in this claim is a minimally populated resource to convey key details for audit, conforming to the base STU3 FHIR resources definition, and is not required to conform to a GP Connect FHIR resource profile.

Example:

"requesting_organization": {
  "resourceType": "Organization",
  "identifier": [
    {
      "system": "https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/ods-organization-code",
      "value": "A1001"
    }
  ],
  "name": "Test Hospital"
}

requesting_practitioner claim

The user making the request, populated as a minimal Practitioner resource.

To contain the logged on user’s identifier(s) (for example, login details / username). Where the user has both a local system user role as well as a nationally-recognised user role, then both SHALL be provided.

The consumer SHALL populate the following Practitioner fields:

  • id with a unique logical identifier (e.g. user ID or GUID) for the logged on user. This SHALL match the value of the sub (subject) claim.
  • name with:
    • family containing the user’s family name
    • given containing the user’s given name
    • prefix containing the user’s title, where available
  • an identifier element with:
    • system containing https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/sds-user-id
    • value containing the SDS user ID from the user’s NHS smartcard, or the value UNK if the user is not logged on with an NHS smartcard
  • an identifier element with:
    • system containing https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/sds-role-profile-id
    • value containing the SDS user role profile ID from the user’s NHS smartcard, or the value UNK if the user is not logged on with an NHS smartcard
  • an identifier element containing a unique local user or user-role identifier for the logged on user (e.g. user ID, user role ID, logon name) from the consumer system:
    • system containing a consumer-defined system URL representing the type of identifier in the value field, e.g. https://consumersupplier.com/Id/user-guid
    • value containing the unique local identifier for the logged on user

The Practitioner resource populated in this claim is a minimally populated resource to convey key details for audit, conforming to the base STU3 FHIR resources definition, and is not required to conform to a GP Connect FHIR resource profile.

Example:

"requesting_practitioner": {
  "resourceType": "Practitioner",
  "id": "10019",
  "identifier": [
    {
      "system": "https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/sds-user-id",
      "value": "111222333444"
    },
    {
      "system": "https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/sds-role-profile-id",
      "value": "444555666777"
    },
    {
      "system": "https://consumersupplier.com/Id/user-guid",
      "value": "98ed4f78-814d-4266-8d5b-cde742f3093c"
    }
  ],
  "name": [
    {
      "family": "Jones",
      "given": [
        "Claire"
      ],
      "prefix": [
        "Dr"
      ]
    }
  ]
}

JWT payload full example

{
  "iss": "https://consumersupplier.thirdparty.nhs.uk/",
  "sub": "10019",
  "aud": "https://providersupplier.thirdparty.nhs.uk/GP0001/STU3/1",
  "exp": 1469436987,
  "iat": 1469436687,
  "reason_for_request": "directcare",
  "requested_scope": "patient/*.read",
  "requesting_device": {
    "resourceType": "Device",
    "identifier": [
      {
        "system": "https://consumersupplier.com/Id/device-identifier",
        "value": "CONS-APP-4"
      }
    ],
    "model": "Consumer product name",
    "version": "5.3.0"
  },
  "requesting_organization": {
    "resourceType": "Organization",
    "identifier": [
      {
        "system": "https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/ods-organization-code",
        "value": "A1001"
      }
    ],
    "name": "Test Hospital"
  },
  "requesting_practitioner": {
    "resourceType": "Practitioner",
    "id": "10019",
    "identifier": [
      {
        "system": "https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/sds-user-id",
        "value": "111222333444"
      },
      {
        "system": "https://fhir.nhs.uk/Id/sds-role-profile-id",
        "value": "444555666777"
      },
      {
        "system": "https://consumersupplier.com/Id/user-guid",
        "value": "98ed4f78-814d-4266-8d5b-cde742f3093c"
      }
    ],
    "name": [
      {
        "family": "Jones",
        "given": [
          "Claire"
        ],
        "prefix": [
          "Dr"
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}

External documents/policy documents

Name Author Version Updated
GPSoC IG Requirements for GP Systems NHS Digital v4.0 19/09/2014
GP Systems Interface Mechanism Requirements V 1 NHS Digital v0.10  
Tags: integration